BEHAVIOURAL / EVIDENCE BASED
Behaviourism combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and psychological theory. It emerged in the late nineteenth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested experimentally.
The most used approach are Dialectical B. Therapy, Cognitive B. Therapy, and all other evidence based approaches including desensitisation, exposure therapy, role plays, classical and operant conditioning and ABC models.
Occasionally, coaching may mean an informal relationship between two people, of whom one has more experience and expertise than the other and offers advice and guidance as the latter learns; but coaching differs from mentoring in focusing on specific tasks or objectives, as opposed to more general goals or overall development.
Life coaching techniques include active imagination, goals visualisation and set up, acceptance and commitment, solution focused therapy, self-respect and recognition of values in the here-now experience.
During psychoanalytic sessions, which typically last 50 minutes and ideally take place 2 times a week, the patient (the "analysand") may lie on a couch, with the analyst often sitting just behind and out of sight. The patient expresses his or her thoughts, including free associations, fantasies and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems.
Through the analysis of these conflicts, which includes interpreting the transference and counter-transference (the analyst's feelings for the patient), the analyst confronts the patient's pathological defences to help the patient gain insight.
Psychoanalysis is a controversial discipline and its validity as a science is contested. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within psychiatry, more so in some quarters than others. Psychoanalytic concepts are also widely used outside the therapeutic arena, in areas such as psychoanalytic literary criticism, as well as in the analysis of film, fairy tales and other cultural phenomena.
Counselling psychology is a psychological speciality that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counselling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counselling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counselling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.
Counselling process refers to how or why counselling happens and progresses. Counselling outcome addresses whether or not counselling is effective, under what conditions it is effective, and what outcomes are considered effective—such as symptom reduction, behaviour change, or quality of life improvement. Topics commonly explored in the study of counselling process and outcome include therapist variables, client variables, the counselling or therapeutic relationship, cultural variables, process and outcome measurement, mechanisms of change, and process and outcome research methods.
Main therapies used:
- Dog/Pet Therapy